RO UV UF TDS Meanings | Water Purifier Glossary (A-Z)


RO, also known as Reverse Osmosis, is a water purification technique that pushes source water through a semipermeable membrane to remove TDS and other metal contaminants like arsenic, lead, mercury, antimony, etc., and deliver pure water for human consumption.


UV stands for ultraviolet purification technique that uses ultraviolet rays emitted by UV lamps to eliminate bacteria, viruses, and other harmful organisms from source water to deliver hygienically pure water for consumption.


UF, known as ultrafiltration, is a supplementary purification technique where the water passes through a UF membrane with minute pores to trap invisible contaminants that bypass other standard purification techniques.


MF, known as Microfiltration, is similar to UF as this process involves passing contaminated water through a semipermeable membrane to trap solids large enough to fit through the MF membrane’s pore size, resulting in a purified liquid stream.


TDS is the abbreviated form of Total Dissolved Solids, which comprises the total concentration of dissolved substances in water, including salts like potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, etc., and metal impurities like lead, arsenic, mercury, etc.

TDS Controller

The TDS controller is a mechanism water purifier manufacturers like Kent use to replenish the essential minerals lost in RO water purification. This process involves introducing untreated source water to the RO-purified water that subsequently passes through other purification channels to deliver RO-purified water replenished with essential minerals like calcium, magnesium, potassium, etc.


Mineralizer comprises a cartridge arrangement containing granules of essential minerals through which the RO-purified water passes to collect minerals like calcium, magnesium, and potassium lost during the RO water purification process.

Mineral Enhancer

Mineral enhancer is similar to mineralizer because it performs the same function of adding essential minerals to RO-purified water when it passes through the cartridge containing mineral granules.

Alkaline Booster

Kent has introduced the Alkaline Booster in its latest machines. This feature acts like a mineral enhancer where the RO-purified water (without essential minerals) passes through the cartridge to collect minerals like calcium, potassium, and magnesium to enhance the pH of the water and make it alkaline and healthy for consumption.

Kent Supreme Alkaline RO


The source water can contain visible impurities like dirt, pollen, fibers, etc. These contaminants can block and damage the UF and RO membranes inside the water purifiers. Therefore, water purifiers use a pre-filter placed outside the machine that traps these visible impurities and prevents them from entering the machine.

Pre Filter in water purifier

Sediment Filter

Sediment filters and pre-filters perform the same function of trapping visible contaminants and preventing them from entering the water purifier. This filter helps prolong the RO and UF membrane’s lifespan.

Pre-RO Carbon Filter

The water source can contain organic contaminants that can give a foul odor. Usually, all RO water purifiers have a pre-RO carbon filter comprising a cartridge filled with activated carbon granules that remove organic impurities and eliminate foul odor as the source water passes through it.

Post-RO Carbon Filter

All RO water purifiers have a post-RO carbon filter that performs a similar role to the pre-RO carbon filter. The only difference is that the post-RO carbon filter removes residual organic matter and eliminates any foul odor in the RO-purified water. It is placed after the RO membrane in the water purifier.

Mesh Filter

Mesh filters constitute a network of metallic wires interlocked together, preventing impurities and dissolved salts from passing through. Generally, mesh filters are helpful where the source water is turbid. These filters ensure the longevity of the RO and UF membrane in water purifiers.

In-tank UV

Kent Supreme Transparent design

Kent has introduced the in-tank UV feature in some of its latest machines, like Kent Grand Plus, Kent Supreme, and others. This feature comprises a UV-LED lamp inside the water storage tank to ensure last-minute water purification before its dispensation. This additional feature eliminates germs, bacteria, and viruses that can contaminate the water after its entire purification cycle.

Taste Adjuster

TDS Controller

The taste adjuster works similarly to the TDS controller to adjust/enhance the water taste after RO purification. It is a mechanical feature that can be adjusted according to user requirements. Turning the screw clockwise decreases TDS levels in water, whereas counterclockwise screw movement increases TDS levels.

UV e-boiling

UV e-boiling treats water with UV radiation to kill germs, bacteria, and viruses. The term e-boiling is used because the process delivers the same results as boiling water.


Some Aquaguard non-RO water purifier models have i-filters, also known as inline filters, to supplement UV purification. This filter can remove TDS from water with TDS levels up to 200 ppm. Though it is not as effective as RO membranes, the i-filter is ideal for places where the source water has low TDS levels.

Chemi Block

Aquaguard water purifiers have a Chemi Block feature that removes chemicals like chlorine from water. The chlorine molecules are removed as the water passes through the Chemi Block. 


Ao smith z8 hot water purifier

AO Smith has introduced innovative features in its Z9 RO water purifier series. The ART Max feature is a water-recovery mechanism where AO Smith claims it can recover twice as much water as a standard RO water purifier. Thus, it ensures minimal water wastage.


Min-Tech is nothing but Mineralizer Technology where a mineralizer cartridge replenishes the essential minerals lost during the RO water purification process. It is like the mineralizer or mineral enhancer feature available in other brand models.

TDS Controller vs Mineralizer


SCMT stands for Silver Charged Membrane Technology and is found in AO Smith water purifiers. This feature uses the inherent benefits of the anti-microbial nature of silver by including silver particles in the membrane. It ensures protection from viruses, bacteria, cysts, and particulates. Phosphates, endotoxins, and colloids. It is better than UV purification because of its additional features.  


SAPC means Silver Activated Post Carbon technology and is available in AO Smith water purifiers. The functionality is similar to the Post-RO carbon filters found in RO water purifiers but with the added benefit of the anti-microbial qualities of silver. Therefore, SAPC combines Post-Carbon technology with UV and kills bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms in RO-purified water.

Chaithanya Vanjari
Chaithanya Vanjari
I'm Chaithanya Vanjari, the Creator and Editor-in-Chief at KitchenArena. With a decade of experience in evaluating large appliances like air conditioners, washing machines, refrigerators, and various small home devices, I possess the technical expertise needed to thoroughly review and understand the operational complexities of these appliances.


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